The essay should Express the author’s view on the problem under consideration, however, to reveal the topic, it is often necessary to cite quotations from different sources of literature. Since the essay in its genre is close to the work of art, and the presentation of other people’s thoughts in it can be more artistic than in abstracts or thesis.
Types of citation in the essay
Citation variants depend on the genre of the cited fragment.
Epigraphs. They are given without quotes, but with the obligatory indication of the author without brackets. An epigraph should be appropriate, as, indeed, any quote in the essay. It lead to give expressive work, so it needs to accurately reflect the essence of the work, to become its highlight.
Poems. When quoting poetic lines, do not enclose them in quotation marks, if they are placed in a column. But when recording one line after author’s words with quotation marks are placed, and between the lines is a sign of separation. It is not necessary to get involved and rewrite the whole poem. This can not only tire a person who will get acquainted with the essay, but also give him the impression of an artificial increase in the amount of work. It is better to take a well-aimed couplet or quatrain that can impress the reader with extraordinary ideas, comparisons.
The poet exclaims:
The sea is raging lonely
Among the beckoning silence.
The poet exclaims: “Raging sea of lonely / In the beckoning silence”.
Famous sayings. If you want to give an example of a famous saying of an author, it is given in quotation marks indicating the author.
“Being serious is not serious!”(Oscar Wilde).
O. Wilde wrote: “to be serious is not serious!”.
The statements of the authors. Quotations of the author from any source is made in the form of direct or indirect speech. When quoting the full direct speech of the author, the quotation begins with a capital letter, while when taking only part of the author’s statement, the quotation begins with a capital or lowercase letter, depending on the fragment taken. In this case, in place of missing words put an ellipsis.
A SAMPLE OF QUOTES FROM DIRECT SPEECH
Sakharov notes: “Modern Russian culture requires deep consideration.”
Sakharov notes: “… Russian culture is markedly different from other world cultures.”
In indirect speech citation begins with a lowercase letter.
SAMPLE INDIRECT SPEECH:
Lavrov wrote that”all the life of Gogol testifies to the ascent to the heights of the spirit.”
After the quote in brackets it is necessary to specify the reference to the source from which the statement is taken. The link itself can be designed in different ways. In case of direct citation in square brackets it is necessary to specify number of the source under which it appears in the list of literature, and number of the page from which the phrase is taken. In the absence of a numbered list, the number is replaced by the author’s name and the year of publication of the source.
Sakharov says: “…Russian culture is significantly different from other world cultures” [15, p. 136].
Sakharov says: “…Russian culture is significantly different from other world cultures” [Sakharov, 2009, p. 136].
If the author’s thoughts are presented in free form, without citation, in brackets it is enough to indicate the source number (for numbered lists) or the author’s name and year of publication of the source (for unnumbered lists).
Sakharov notes that the culture of Russia is markedly different from other world cultures” .
Sakharov notes that the culture of Russia is markedly different from other world cultures” [Sakharov, 2009].
The reference to the used source can also be a subscript. For its registration at the end of the quoted phrase you need to put an Arabic numeral corresponding to the serial number of the link on the page.
3 Ivanov Ie Popular methods of personnel assessment. M., 2014. P. 175.
General citation rules:
The quotation must strictly correspond to the quoted fragment without shortening of words, punctuation marks, distortion of meaning. It should also comply with the features of the author’s writing (selected or sparse text, etc.).
Quotes should not be many on one page (it is recommended to be limited to two), and they should not be too long.
If necessary, something to emphasize in the quote after it in parentheses should indicate this and indicate their initials (underline my — AP).
After each quote must have a source from which it is taken.