Example: As she loves to cook, she wants to be a chef.
Basically, an independent clause is a standalone sentence, which means that it conveys a complete idea or thought. On the other hand, a dependent clause contains a subject and verb, but it is not a standalone sentence. It needs to be combined with a dependent clause to convey meaning. Dependent clauses are often joined by conjunctions or relative pronouns. A complex sentence that begins with a dependent clause and ends with an independent clause is referred to as a periodic sentence.
|As soon as|
|As long as|
She was still hungry although she ate a big hamburger.
Because the phone kept ringing, she couldn’t sleep properly.
The baby cried although she was in her mother’s lap.
As the kid was hurt, he started howling.
Because she is pretty, people overlook her flaws.
Although she was angry at him, she still greeted him.
Though she studied very hard for the test, she still failed.
Though the team played well, they lost.
The students studied hard because they knew that the questions wouldn’t be easy to answer.
The children devoured the cake because it was delicious.
Because she has stage fright, people are not aware of her singing abilities.
She is going to bed early as she is not feeling well.
I wrote a song while you were away.
When the teacher entered the classroom, the students became quiet.
When she is tired, she is quite irritable.
They spend most of their time on the beach whenever they visit.
She recovered from the infection after she took the medicine.
She must continue to practice until she achieves perfection.
Even though the traffic light turned red, she didn’t stop the car.
Though they had lots of money, they were still unhappy.
She returned the dress after she noticed that it was damaged.
I still remember the restaurant where we first met.
The woman, who won the contest, was all smiles.
Although I received the invitation, I am not too keen on meeting them.
The dress, though very expensive, was totally worth it.
As soon as her children arrived, she entered the kitchen to cook their favorite meal.
Even though they arrived late, they didn’t seem apologetic.
I don’t know when they will come.
Deforestation is an issue that should be resolved.
Here’s an example of a complex sentence with two dependent clauses and one independent clause.
Even though he had a medical problem, he studied hard because he wanted to succeed.
People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
Mary bought a necklace that is studded with diamonds.
The house that they live in is not theirs.
The man who had stolen the necklace was caught.
This is the necklace that is made of precious gemstones.
Women who arrived in the morning are fashion models.
Subordinating conjunctions that are used for expressing time in a dependent adverb clause include:
✦ As soon as
✦ As long as
✦ Now that
✦ As long as
✦ So (that)
Subordinating conjunctions that are used for showing contrast include:
✦ Even though
Subordinating conjunctions that are used for denoting condition include:
✦ Only if
✦ Whether or not
✦ Even if
✦ Provided (that)
✦ In case
✦ In the event (that)
Children watched television after they finished their homework.
Playing chess is fun when you are good at it.
She walked quickly across the street as if she feared for her life.
They will go to the restaurant when the game is over.
She washed the dishes after she finished dinner.
Whatever you do is fine with me.
I don’t remember what I ate for dinner.
Do you know who she is?
I know where he lives.
He ate whatever he could find in the refrigerator.
Everyone knows what the truth is.
We don’t know when the guests will arrive.
He will talk to whoever will listen.
Martha didn’t listen to what George said.
He wants to learn about whatever is interesting.
The truth is that she cannot cook.
The winner will be whoever finishes the pies first.
― Henry David Thoreau, Walden
― L. Frank Baum, The Wizard of Oz
― E.B. White, Stuart Little
― George Eliot, Adam Bede
― Herman Melville, Moby-Dick
When the earthquake occurred, the windows rattled, and the whole house started shaking.
When she walked the ramp, the other models looked nervous, and people were mesmerized by her beauty.
As soon as the famous singer stepped on the stage, she waved at the crowd, and the crowd cheered.
When the burglar broke in, the alarm went off, and the dog started barking.
She waited for the train, but the train was late.
She waited for the train and the train was late are both independent clauses or standalone sentences. These are joined by a coordinating conjunction.
Here’s how you can change this compound sentence into a complex sentence:
Because the train was late, she had to wait.
Similarly, you can join two simple sentences with a coordinating conjunction to change it into a complex sentence. Here are some examples:
She went to the movies. She had a test.
She went to the movies even though she had a test.
Mark was recruited. Mark is qualified.
As Mark is qualified, he was recruited.
Her name is Samantha. Samantha is a famous athlete. Samantha lives in New Work.
Samantha, who is a famous athlete, lives in New York.